While a round is 6 seconds it can be more than 30ft of movement. You have a standard action, a move action, a swift action, and free actions
You can run 3-5 times your speed depending on armour, terrain, and feats, but you cannot turn during that movement.
A standard action can be converted to a move so you can double move 60ft.
If there are no obstacles you can charge an opponent, which is a double move +attack, usually with +2 on that attack and -2ac for the round.
You can do the standard move+attack or Attack+move.
If you have multiple attacks you can forego your move action to make all your attacks, your still allowed a 5ft step before or after.
Some other actions can be made during a move action (drawing a weapon while moving).
Swift actions take negligible time so can be done with your other actions, but only one is permisible per round, including the time leading up to your round if you've used an immidiate action (a swift action that can be used out of turn eg Featherfall).
There is no limit on free actions except common sense as far as I remember.
Spells with durations are mostly split into instantanious, rounds, minutes, 10's of minutes, hours, lasts 24 hours, or permanant.
And a farmers decided to 'mow' my lawn with cows
, so I'll have to leave it at that.